The Elizabethan Era Facts: Mary, Queen of Scots In 1560, the Scottish Parliament mainly became Protestant. The Black Plague, a disease many would agree was both one of the most devastating and poignant events to occur in European History. The Elizabethan Medical Treatment of the Black Death or the Bubonic PlagueThe main reasons for the 14th century pandemic effect and spread of the virus was the poor hygiene and the massive number of infected rodents. The disease was carried by rats & it caused fever, developed lesions, and death within a few days of having it. The black plague was not only a biological issue but also a mental issue as people then was really panic stricken and did isolate the affected ones. The plague full swift goes by; I am sick, I must die Lord, have mercy on us! After the Black Death, the main plague epidemics occurred in 1563, 1593, 1625 and 1665. Plague's symptoms were horrible: fever, a racing pulse and breathlessness, followed by pain in the back and legs, thirst and stumbling. They had to pay for rents and taxes. They received higher wages for their labor. Although monks and nuns were no longer features of the English social and medical landscape, religion remained a major component of the Elizabethan response to plague. Amidst the consequences suffered by those carrying the disease, came the ramifications that those who were not directly affected experienced. The Black Death was the second pandemic of bubonic plague and the most devastating pandemic in world history. Popular medieval scholar Petrarch lost his lady love Laura to Black Death.Black death timeline. The earthquakes did lead to an increase in the number of rats in the area (some texts even describe "seas of rats" swimming through water or running through the streets). Information about the Closure of the Elizabethan Globe Theater due the Black Death or the Bubonic PlagueThere were three very serious outbreaks of the diseasewhich led to the closure of all places of Elizabethan entertainment, including the Globe Theater. Due to the fact that the serfs and peasants were poor, they barely ate meat. Although this might sound pointless today, these precautions would have protected the Elizabethan Physician. Crime and Punishment in Elizabethan England A contemporary description of crime and punishment in Shakespeare's . A frightening and swift end to life. The diet was mostly made of beer, milk, cheese and bread. Many people aboard the ship were already dead from the disease and the ship was ordered to leave the harbor, but it was too late. The Black Death Receive updates on the latest news and alerts straight to your inbox. Thousands of dead bodies lay waste as no one was there to offer them a proper Christian burial. There were high mortality rates amongst Elizabethan children and this was true of the brothers and sisters of Shakespeare some of whom were struck down by the Bubonic plague (Black Death). Plague laid waste to England and especially to the capital repeatedly during Shakespeare's professional life in 1592, again in 1603, and in 1606 and 1609. It only took about twenty-three days from the point of infection for the plague to be fatal (Benedictow). Black Death in England - 1348-1350 The Black Death reached England in 1348. Some of our most famous art and literature come from this era of history, and English explorers traveled the globe, spreading their . The Bubonic plague (Black Death) was always caught or spread from an infected animal or person. No one was sure how the Death spread, and this combined with the fast course the disease took and the primitive medical practices of the time allowed for the disease to spread through the continent in devastating time. Copyright 2023 IPL.org All rights reserved. Threats of imprisonment were made as encouragement to undertake these tasks and this consequence was suffered by anyone who refused the role. The Black Death is widely believed to have been the result of plague, caused by infection with the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Cats and dogs were killed, as it was believed that they might spread the plague. The main culprit of the spread was the poor hygiene, however, the real species that are the cause of this potential wipeout, are the rats and other infected rodents that resided in the area. The Great Mortality. The Elizabethans had no idea that the plague was spread by fleas that had lived on rats; though there were many "cures" for the plague, the only real defense--for those who could afford it--was to leave the crowded, rat-infested cities for the country. Between 1558 and 1582 plaques arrived in London every four years on average. Information about the Symptoms of the Black Death or the Bubonic PlagueThe symptoms associated with the disease were, and are, painful swellings (bubos) of the lymph nodes. Lung problems given the medical treatment of liquorice and comfrey. First arriving in Europe through sick merchants on Genoese trading ships that docked in Sicily, the plague caused boils, fever, diarrhea, horrible pain, and shortly, death. This was believed to be infectious and communicative in nature and hence, isolation was the only possible remedy then. Abandoning the affected ones was the real ecstasy them. Amidst the consequences suffered by those carrying the disease, came the ramifications that those who were not directly affected experienced. Although this first outbreak was certainly the most dramatic, the plague did not simply disappear after 1349. During the late 1330s in Europe the population was growing dramatically. as a substitute for, professional counseling care, advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Abandoning the affected ones was the real ecstasy them. If it was spread by bacteria in the air, the incubation period was a mere one to three days. Any pictures of Physicians of the Elizabethan era look very strange and quite frightening. The medieval medicines, herbs, and potions were useless against the dark power of bubonic plague. There was a total lack of a structured sewage system in Elizabethan London. These symptoms could come on rapidly, making it very difficult to get treatment in time. In 1500 there was around 2.5 million people in England. The relationship between the landowners and the peasants who worked in those lands suffered a great impact. The Black Death (Plague of 1348) had a deep and lasting impact on Medieval Europe for a variety of reasons. It first showed up in Europe in October 1347. What caused the Bubonic plague in the Middle Ages? Human beings cruelly abandoned their sick loved ones in a desperate attempt to protect their own-selves against the heinous bubonic plague. information on this site as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment, or Victims also suffered a very high fever, delirium, the victim begins to vomit, muscular pains, bleeding in the lungs and mental disorientation. The plague caused many to question their religious outlook, the lack of knowledge caused false cures to develop and affected the interactions throughout Europe. In later years, doctors found a bit of success by bursting the buboes, although this could also lead to secondary infection. For another, the instructions for the penitential fasting specified that only those between the ages of sixteen and sixty need fast, allowing children and the elderly to keep their strength, and exempted those already ill, a tacit recognition that skipping meals would only make the disease worse. Author bio: Michael Lowry Lamble holds an MA in Medieval and Renaissance History from Loyola University Chicago and is currently pursuing an MA in Museology from the University of Washington. Sailors on the ship were infected by this deadly disease, most were extremely ill, while many were already dead. The Black Death spread extensively through Europe, affecting both nobility and peasants. Elizabeth I's England consolidated its position with the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, and firmly established the Church of England (begun by her father, Henry VIII, after a dispute with the Pope). It started to spread from Eastern China, to Europe in the early 1300s, and it reoccurred multiple times during the years to come. The plague was similar to diseases today because it was not curable similar to Aids. The Black Death & Bubonic Plague in the Elizabethan Era, Symptoms, effects, consequences, cure and medical treatment. This caused food shortages, which began to worry the people. However, Elizabeth had many favourites and close friends who were men, including Robert Dudley, Walter Raleigh, Francis Drake, and Robert Devereux, as well as many prominent suitors, including many . Some measures, like perfume and bloodletting, have ultimately proven to be useless. In times of plague, large public gatherings and outdoor markets were closed down by order or the queen. Symptoms noticed: reddening of skin, skin turning black, high fever, swelling of the lymph glands. These assemblies were empowered to levy emergency taxes on the towns and villages of their respective counties in order to fund relief efforts, to appoint officials to collect and disburse these aid funds to affected communities, and to impose and enforce further preventative and relief measures as they saw fit. Queen Elizabeth I also prohibited the import of foreign goods as a measure to prevent the spread of the disease to the Elizabethan court. The victim would also experience extremely high fever and bloody vomit. Inadequate hygiene standards added to the problem and spread of the disease. The Black Death began in the Himalayan Mountains of South Asia in the 1200s. The impact of closure must have been extremely frightening, not to mention the threat of the Black Death ( Bubonic Plague ) itself. Once inside the body, it multiplies rapidly and can cause death within two days without the aid of antibiotics. The Black Death, also known as the bubonic plague, was a disease that devastated Medieval Europe, between 1346 and 1352 it killed 45 million people, wiping out a third of Europe's population. The blood that exuded was black, thick and vile smelling with a greenish scum mixed in it. Amulets of dried blood and ground-up toads were worn at the waists of the Elizabethan Physicians. Some elements of quarantine were introduced but usually by the time that this was instigated the deadly disease had already struck. Plague Pits were rapidly dug. The people who were uninfected would rarely leave their homes isolating the sick ones in separated places. Authorities in Sicily ordered the fleet of death ships to leave the harbor, but it was too late. The Black Death of October 1347 to c1352 was one of the worst catastrophes in recorded history - a deadly bubonic plague that ravaged communities across Europe, changing forever their social and economic fabric. In the Elizabethan time, London became the center for all arts. It is sometimes presumed to be the disease behind several historic epidemics, such as the pestilence described as striking the Philistines in the biblical book of 1 Samuel. The primary pneumonic plague infects people by droplet infection from human to human being. The houses would be locked and bolted from the outside. It's population was growing continuously with poor people moving from the country to London in search of work. The Elizabethan era was truly a dangerous time. The plague Orders did more than mandate quarantines, however. Plague victims were locked in their houses for 40. cities of Europe to spread the killer disease across the continent. In the first episode of BBC historical drama Wolf Hall, based on Hilary Mantel's novel of the same name, Thomas Cromwell returns home to find his wife and two daughters have all died . Nevertheless, it is illuminating to see the ways that these people over three hundred years ago grappled with the fear and uncertainty of virulent disease. Elizabethan England: A huge part of any renaissance era is the arts. The aim of this fasting and prayer was repentance for sins both personal and communal, on the grounds that if God controls all things, then plague was evidence of his displeasure with the nation. It made its way to Europe on trade and cargo ships, traveling on the backs of rats stowed away on the ships. He was known to have a terrible fear of the deadly disease and its consequences and this is hardly surprising as it touched so many areas of his life including his life as an actor at the Globe Theater. One of the names for the plague was "The Pestilence." Plague and Public Health in Elizabethan England The Black Death famously devastated England, as it did much of Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa, in the mid-fourteenth century. Black Death reigned terror till the mid 14th century. For headaches, doctors used lavender, rose, and sage, Vomiting or nausea was relieved with balm, mint or wormwood. The Black Death spread so quickly due to poor hygiene and overcrowding in major cities. In fact, the social law and orders were being violated, the administrative protocols, the dispensational rules could not at all stand firm owing to this crisis that separated families, friends relatives. Plague is an extremely infectious and vile disease caused by a bacteria known as Yersinia Pestis. The plague as an actual event figures prominently in only one of Shakespeare's plays. In this system, the lord owned the land in small communities, and the peasants living there farmed the land and gave him a portion of their crops as a form of payment. Of those who contracted the bubonic plague, 4 out of 5 died within eight days. 2. Everyday people struggle with an illness. Over the next five years, more than 20 million people died from a disease that almost killed one . As per their analysis, Giant Gerbils (rodents) and their explosive population in Asia along with plague bacteria-infected fleas was the primary source of the airborne disease. The rate of casualty: Millions died owing to this fever and did not even receive a proper Christian burial as people almost abandoned them. Copyright 2023 IPL.org All rights reserved. Plague is the obvious example but it is by no means the only one. Click here for more information on Elizabethan England, World and Medieval History of the Black Death and Bubonic Plague - How the disease spread and Nationalities affected, Black Death and Bubonic Plague - Modern day symptoms, cure and medical treatment. BY Brita Voris. The Black Plague A statutory law was set to command every healthy person under sixty to work for anyone who would hire him. concerns or questions about your health, you should always consult with a physician or other Furthermore, the disease killed his son Hamnet at 11 years of age in 1596. On the same note if you wish us not to use a photo for any reason just let us know and we will remove it. He is someone who writes essentially a morality tale at the end, tracing the beginnings of a citizen who decides he and his wife are going to flee from London to escape the plague. 1547 Repeal of 1542 Witchcraft during the reign of King Edward VI, the son of Henry VIII, who was more liberal in his thinking about witches and witchcraft. The Black Death Tasked with treating victims of the Black Death, plague doctors wore all-leather suits and beak-like masks to avoid catching the fatal disease. Why did the Black Death kill so many people in the 14th century? The ' wise women ' in the Elizabethan community or some members of the Church were really the victims only hope for a medical treatment and cure of the Black Death or the Bubonic Plague. While everyone knows the plague was an awful way to die, not many people are aware of how truly horrendous the symptoms were. Survivors of the Black Death felt that they were special, chosen specifically by God to be saved (Trueman), and after this the lower class began to demand more economic and social equality. The moral of the story is you can't run if God doesn't want you to run. Sicily was then overcome by the disease and it spread through the trade routes all over Europe. An Elizabethan London who did not understand how the Bubonic plague (Black Death) was spread Queen Elizabeth - Information about containing the Spread of the Black Death or the Bubonic Plague during the Elizabethan eraThere was nowhere to hide from the disease and no one was safe, not even the monarch. Others had more worldly concerns, suspecting all the quarantine measures to be nothing more than an attempt to curtail their rights, rights which they feared would not be restored after the plague had passed. Listen Now 1. Bloodletting, or cutting open the vein nearest the infected part of the body, was commonly thought to be one of the best ways to treat the illness. The principal ideas underpinning most Elizabethan medical thinking come from Galen, who lived in the second century A.D. Physicians will cite him as an unquestionable authority when they explain to you that your health depends on a balance of the four humors: yellow bile or choler, black bile, phlegm, and blood. The Black Death was not the only pandemic going around Europe, other diseases include syphilis and gonorrhea. At Bristol, Michael carries pike and shotte and portions out gunpowder. The Black Death killed most of the aforementioned peasants, so the fields they were expected to farm on were left unplowed. Blood and greenish pus seeped out of them. During the Renaissance period a disease was brought to Europe that is known as the Black Plague. While it is true that the living conditions in Europe at this time were not ideal, this was not the real reason for the spread of the disease. The Bubonic plague (Black Death) was the greatest fear of people living during the Elizabethan era from the Queen herself to the lowliest of her subjects. In Europe there were many responses to the plague which included helping to stop and cure the plague, profiting off it, and trying to protect and care for their loved ones. The fever started spreading soon all over the European nations , especially Italy and England and hence , people started calling this as the black death ; black being the colour of negative vibe and ominous aspects . The rodents slowly made their journey to Europe via the Silk Road routes constantly used for trade. Today, we know that there were many causes of the Black Death. The Black Death arrived in Europe on October 1348 when 12 Genoese trading ships arrived at the Sicilian port of Messina after a long journey through the Black Sea. Plague doctors started wearing special masks with a bird-shaped beak for protection, as they believed the disease was airborne. The Black Death entered south-western England in Summer 1348 and by all accounts struck Bristol with shocking force. A ship came from China that brought rats infested with fleas, carrying the plague to Sicily. Nearly half of the people who contracted the infection died from it, resulting in a loss of 25-60 percent of Europe's entire population. The disease killed people of all classes. The fear that people felt just to survive resulted in some of the darkest times in the history of . The plague caused many to question their religious outlook, the lack of knowledge caused false cures to develop and affected the interactions throughout Europe. The Black Death was a very rough time and harmful, with the population dropping 1/3, having the economy being poor because of inflation, and people being afraid to walk to streets, The Black Death or what scientist call it The Bubonic Plague. These reports were then sent directly to the Privy Council. Medieval towns had no system of drains, sewers or trash collections. Many serfs moved to cities and contributed to the rise in urbanization and industrialization. No effective remedy was found and hence, people did not at all receive any function able treatment. William Shakespeare is recognised as one of the most talented writers in all of English History. In addition to these general orders for containing the spread of plague, the Elizabethan state targeted specific threats as well. Upon receiving the Orders, the justices of the peace of every county were commanded to assemble to determine where infections were already occurring, what sorts of communities these places were, and their wealth. Also spurting wage demands created an abysmal situation in Europe then. A group transporting the spoils of a Spanish carrack from Dartmouth couldn't get further than Greenwich due to the . Many people at the time believed that the Plague was a result of the release of "bad air" from the ground, due to earthquakes nearby. Its populace of roughly 100,000 people included royalty, nobility, merchants, artisans, laborers, actors, beggars, thieves, and spies, as well as refugees from political and religious persecution on the continent. In the modern world, however, the barely changed virus only kills 2 to 3 percent of infected victims, even when modern medicine is not accessible. Some dissenters viewed quarantine as antithetical to Christian charity, arguing that the solution to such a judgment from God was not to separate but rather to come together in fellowship, sick and healthy alike. Any victim of the Bubonic Plague or Black Death would have to obtain a ' Certificate of Health ' to resume normal life - if they recovered Information about the Role of the Watchmen and Death Cart LabourersWatchmen were allocated to watch the ' plague houses ' and the only means of sustenance was for the victims to lower baskets from an upper window for the watchman to put food into it. To support these quarantine measures, every infected community appointed officials both to provide food and essentials to the afflicted households, and also to make sure their residents stayed put. The black plague, also called the Black Death, began in East Asia then traveled to Europe . Some doctors even tried treatment with arsenic, dried toad or lily roots. These corpses were left rotting in the houses until they were dragged out, weeks later, to be thrown on a cart and finally disposed of. There was no town cleansing department in the Elizabethan era. The Black Death, also known as the Bubonic Plague, was one of the biggest pandemics in the world. See Also: 10 Facts about Life in Ancient Egypt Facts about Life in Elizabethan England 9: the bread crumbs During the mid-fourteenth century, a plague hit Europe. Realizing that the Italian merchants had brought the disastrous plague to them, the people of Sicily threw them out of the city. I. Famously, Elizabeth lived and died as the 'Virgin Queen', resistant to being married off and obviously childless. Still others had the infected person sit near a fire or in the sewer in an attempt to drive out the fever with heat. The disease could also be air bound and transmitted from an infected person's breath. First arriving in Europe through sick merchants on Genoese trading ships that docked in Sicily, the plague caused boils, fever, diarrhea, horrible pain, and shortly, death. To fully understand what witches went through during the Elizabethan Age in England, you need to realize how troubled life was for the common people. Information about the Spread of the Elizabethan Black Death or the Bubonic Plague in Elizabethan EnglandThere were repeated outbreaks of the disease during the Elizabethan era and these outbreaks were often transmitted by the fleas that lived on rodents and animals, especially rats. William Shakespeare and the Black Death / Bubonic PlagueWilliam Shakespeare lived in the Elizabethan era when the bubonic plague, sometimes referred to as the Black Death, was virulent. Due to a severe labor shortage, serf survivors were able to demand higher wages and better working conditions from their new landlords. 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